The block diagram of the experimental layout is shown in figure 4. The output of the phase accumulator addresses the rom. Finally, the dac converts this sequence of data to an analogue waveform. The phase accumulator partitioned into l stages with b dffs in each stage fig. Functional block diagram of traditional dds method. Implementation of a 32bit high speed phase accumulator. The new architecture of the 32bit phase accumulator with modified bk adder and clock. A numerical model for solving time delay and phase inconsistency. The following features make conceptdraw diagram the best block diagram software. The output from the dac is usually applied to filters to smooth the waveform and remove any extraneous output.
The reference signal and tuning register update the phase accumulator, providing a phase value 2. A numerical model for solving time delay and phase. The rate is determined by a counter, called the phase accumulator. Design and analysis of hybrid wave pipelined phase. Everything you need to know about direct digital synthesis. A phase accumulator generates phase data for a direct digital synthesis dds device based on a reference phase to provide analog sinusoidal outputs that are locked to the reference phase and thus. What that means is that you can ignore any overflow in your phase its just going to wrap around the unit circle anyway, and the sine wave generator is only interested in the phase fraction anyway. Then, the phase accumulator outputs the datas addresses while the. Operation of the phase accumulator in a direct digital synthesizer 8 fig 3. The phase accumulator modulus of traditional dds is usually a fixed value, and the. Block diagram of nco block diagram of nco is as shown in fig. If a sine lookup table is used, the phase accumulator computes a phase angle. The nco will made up of phase accumulator and phase to amplitude converter.
The truncated output of the phase accumulator serves as the address to a sine or. This paper deals with an fpga implementation of a high performance fm modulator and demodulator for software defined radio sdr system. It consists of a 12 x 12b twoscomplement multiplier and a 27b accumulator that. Generate real or complex sinusoidal signals simulink. A numericallycontrolled oscillator nco is a digital signal generator which creates a synchronous i. The best way to generate a variable frequency sine wave in software is to use the direct digital synthesis dds method. Plcs are integrated systems containing a processor, main memory, input modules, output modules that are coupled together by a common bus. The block diagram in figure 7 demonstrates a simple implementation of fsk. Direct digital synthesizer using numerically controlled. They come with dedicated software, allowing the user to testevaluate the part. The new architecture of the 32bit phase accumulator with modified bk adder and clock pulse division technique shown in fig. A block diagram of 16 parallel channels in the data acquisition system. The block implements the algorithm as shown in the following diagram. The phase accumulator value is truncated and the top 14 bits are taken into the sine wave lookup table component as an address.
How to perform realtime power measurements with a power. Diagrammatic sketch of the operating principle of phase accumulator. Update the diagram and create input events rising edge for ref and var and an output variable for s. Block diagram of phase accumulator download scientific diagram. Block diagrams, blocks with perspective, callouts, connectors, raised blocks from the solution block diagrams contain specific block diagram symbols such as arrows. To be able to feed the reference signal and vco signal to the chart, use a. Block diagram software functional block diagram basic. This provides an easy way to measure the efficiency of your. Logic in the timeservo dsp section statically or dynamically adjusts the fractional increment value added at each reference clock. Digital implementation of phase locked loop on fpga. The output of the phase accumulator the phase is used to select each item in the data table in turn. An accumulator is build with an adder whose sum can be loaded into a register as shown in figure 1.
Digital receivers have revolutionized electronic systems for a variety of applications including communications, data acquisition, and signal processing. Phase locked loop pll in a software defined radio sdr. Simplified block diagram of the direct digital frequency synthesizer. Then, we force the ise synthesis tool to disable the using of dsp. Design and analysis of a low cost wave generator based on. Fractionalinteger n pll basics edited by curtis barrett wireless communication business unit abstract phase locked loop pll is a fundamental part of radio, wireless and telecommunication technology. A dds circuit includes a phase accumulator, a phaseamplitude table a. Methods and structures for efficiently implementing an accumulatorbased loadstore cpu architecture in a programmable logic device pld. As an analogy, you can think of an up accumulator the type we are using in this project as a file cabinet.
And perhaps some written or video tutorial on how to use the software. As shown in figure1, the main components of a dds are a phase accumulator, phasetoamplitude converter a. Techniques for random access ra in a cellular internetofthings ciot are discussed. Us8115519b2 phase accumulator generating reference phase. Block diagram of 32bit pipeline phase accumulator design. The phase accumulator just overflowed between 315 degrees and 45 degrees, and yet the phase representation just did the right thing. Using a power accumulator addon board, you can perform power measurements of any system rail during the project development phase. The output of the phase accumulator is a sawtooth waveform that represents. The individual component of proposed fm modulator and. Us patent for enhanced rach random access channel design. The block diagram for a representative dds system is shown in figure 1. If m2, then the phase accumulator register rolls over twice as fast, and the output frequency is doubled.
Input modules interface with plant equipment and convert the field signals to logic levels for the processor to read. This study presents 32bit phase accumulator pa design, using the pipelining stages with modified brentkung bk adder. Spll software phase locked loop srff set reset flip flop stc single time constant. An example apparatus configured to be employed within a user equipment ue, comprises a receiver circuitry, a. Comparative study of dds with different types of phase. A phasetosine amplitude converter characterized by a. The basic block diagram of a direct digital frequency synthesizer is shown in figure1 11. The pld includes programmable logic blocks, each logic block.
You dont need to be an artist to draw professional looking diagrams in a. Logix 5000 advanced process control and drives and equipment phase and sequence instructions. A numericallycontrolled oscillator nco is a digital signal generator which creates a. Direct digital synthesis dds is a method employed by frequency synthesizers used for creating arbitrary waveforms from a single, fixedfrequency reference clock. In this design, clock pulse division technique applied to reduce the number of. The quadrature phase shift keying qpsk is a variation of bpsk, and it is also a double side band suppressed carrier dsbsc modulation scheme, which sends two bits of digital information at a time. Number of quantized accumulator bits number of quantized accumulator bits 12 default integer scalar. Reliability block diagram software is a powerful visualization tool enabling you to model a complex system configuration as a series of blocks.
The figure shows the block diagram of the phase locked loop system in fm transmitter that consists of different blocks such as a crystal oscillator, phase detector, loop filter, voltage controlled oscillator. A block diagram of the ad9162 and ad9164 is shown in figure 2. The reference clock increments a 120bit phase accumulator on each edge. Typical wavetables use the top 10bits of the phase accumulator as the lookup value. A phase accumulator pa, which adds to the value held at its output a. Logix 5000 advanced process control and drives and. Set the parameter values in the parameter editor and view the block diagram for the component.
The essential components are a phase accumulator pa, which is a variable increment counter of n bits. The photograph of the real experimental platform is shown as figure 8b. The nco block generates a multichannel real or complex sinusoidal signal, with independent frequency and phase in each output channel. This consists of a 32 bit phase accumulator that has a phase offset value added to it. Can anyone recommend me a free software that can help me to graphically represent a pseudoternary or binary phase diagram. The proposed 32bit phase accumulator design consists of four pipeline stages, with 8bit. Accumulators are a basic building block of most large digital logic or dsp project. Can anyone recommend me some phase diagram software. Implementation of a 32bit high speed phase accumulator for direct. A 200 mhz cmos pipelined multiplieraccumulator using a. To summarise the operation of the nco for a readers understanding, the main building blocks of an nco include a clock source, increment block and a phase accumulator.
Block diagram of direct digital frequency synthesizer. The functional structure of the signal generator block diagram, as shown in figure 2, mainly consists of a power supply system, scm system, dds. Block diagram of a basic direct digital synthesizer dds 7 fig 2. A block diagram of such a system is shown in figure 2. Direct digital frequency synthesizer with cordic algorithm and. An almost pure dds sine wave tone generator analog devices. Design and implementation of an all digital phase locked. Function block diagrams for programmable logic controllers. A function block defines data as a set of input and output parameters, which can be used as software connections to other blocks, and internal variables. In the case of the accumulator supplies the size of the hydraulic accumulator is determined using the pressure oil requirements of all consumers dependent on the accumulator during a working cycle and. The phase accumulator combines the reference frequency and the value in the tuning word register. At every clock cycle, the counter is incremented by a little bit the phase accumulated by the carrier wave over the clock period. The corresponding output sinewave frequency is equal to the input clock frequency divided by 232. Wqs free trial reliability block diagram software ptc.75 1270 270 603 826 642 174 1660 1075 279 1173 216 384 569 745 1633 156 32 1122 572 874 1404 1131 1265 1462 533 218